The transformer blew because of currents generated

Learn about the Solar Flare and How it Forms

But the photosphere is a boiling cauldron of gas and plasma, and these magnetic connections can be easily disrupted. When they are, many violent things can happen. One is a prominence which is a looping ejection of plasma between a pair of sunspots. A prominence remains connected to the sun.

Another more violent disruption occurs when there is a severe magnetic disturbance in the layer below the photosphere the chromosphere. When these disruptions propagate up through the photosphere they explode into the sun’s outer atmosphere the corona and literally blow millions of tons of plasma into outer space. If this plasma hits Earth, it too causes major disruptions.

The magnetic disruption that produces solar flares occurs in the photosphere. As the lines of force shift and move about due to the ferocious activity of the plasma, they sometimes can become twisted. If they twist enough, they can shear. Then flux lines can cross and reconnect with an explosive release of energy. The result is a solar flare.

The Impact of Flares

Flares can be like gremlins to us Earth dwellers. The highly energetic protons and electrons expand the ionosphere, thus disrupting long distance radio signals. Our LEO satellites can have their orbits changed because of the expansion of the atmosphere and the resulting drag. Among these are the ISS. During sunspot maximums, when flares are most prevalent, the ISS loses 400 meters of altitude per day. During spot minimums it loses only 80 meters a day (the Shuttle boosts it back to altitude on each visit).

But that’s not the worst flares can do to our satellites. The high energy particles can disrupt or even destroy their sensitive circuitry. Many satellites have had their performance severely degraded by flares.

Flares can even shut down power grids. On Aug. 14, 2003, a large solar flare erupted. Shortly thereafter a large part of southern New Jersey was blacked out due to a blown transformer. The transformer blew because of currents generated in it by the flare.

Flares even affect airline routes. United Airlines, which flies many routes over the poles, reroutes flights during solar flares because aa flare can give passengers and crew the equivalent of a chest x ray dose of radiation. They pose a particular danger to astronauts. Had astronauts been on their way to the moon during the flare, they would have received a potentially fatal radiation dose.

## ## The solar flare cycle generally follows the sunspot cycle, hitting a maximum every 11 years. But major flares have occurred during spot minimums.

Sources and CreditsThis post is part of the series: Damage by Solar Storms and Flares

While our Sun gives us life, it also can create havoc on our blue planet. Damage by solar storms and flares can be costly and dangerous. They affect many aspects of our lives.

After that, approximately 150,000 square feet of the

## ## Lord Taylor is closing its 5th Ave store

The original plan was for the store to become WeWork’s New York headquarters after the 2018 holiday season. After that, approximately 150,000 square feet of the building would continue to be run as a scaled down Lord Taylor.

But that is no longer the case. Hudson’s Bay said late Monday that it “has decided not to maintain a presence at [the Fifth Avenue] location following turnover of the building to WeWork.”

The company said that “exiting this iconic space” which first opened in 1914 is a reflection of “Lord Taylor’s increasing focus on its digital opportunity and [Hudson’s Bay] commitment to improving profitability.”

A spokesperson for Hudson’s Bay added in a statement to CNNMoney that it will be closing a total of 10 Lord Taylor stores and reiterated that the Fifth Avenue store would not close until early 2019, once the holiday shopping season ends.

WeWork is one of the biggest private companies in America. It is worth $20 billion, according to CB Insights.

Related: WeShop? WeWork preps a retail push

Hudson’s Bay, like many other traditional retailers, has been hurt by the rise of Amazon and online commerce in general.

But Hudson’s Bay is turning to Amazon rival Walmart for assistance in the digital shopping arena.

The companies added last month that the online store is set to launch in the coming weeks with more than 125 brands and will feature free two day shipping for orders over $35.

Lord Taylor and Hudson’s Bay may need all the help they can get from Walmart in the online world. Hudson’s Bay has struggled a bit in its efforts to become a more innovative, digitally focused company.

Hudson’s Bay bought the once hot online shopping company Gilt Groupe in 2016 for $250 million. But Hudson’s Bay was forced to take a nearly $90 million writedown last year, partly due to weakness at Gilt.

And now Hudson’s Bay is getting rid of Gilt entirely. The company also announced Monday it was selling Gilt Groupe to rival online commerce site Rue La La for an undisclosed price.

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